(1) excavating buildings and factory building foundation;
(2) excavating soil and stripping overburden of mining site;
(3) loading operation in quarry, tunnel, underground factory building and stacking yard;
(4) excavating channels, canals and dredging waterways;
(5) pouring, lifting, installation, pile driving, ramming soil and so on after replacing working devices.
Excavator, also known as excavator (excavating machinery), is used to excavate materials above or below the bearing surface with bucket, and load it into transport vehicles or unload to the yard of earthmoving machinery. Excavators excavate mainly soil, coal, sediment and pre-loosened soil and rock. From the development of construction machinery in recent years, the development of excavator is relatively rapid, excavator has become one of the most important construction machinery in engineering construction. The three most important parameters of excavator are operating weight (mass), engine power and bucket capacity.
1. Backshovel operation
is generally carried out below the ground, mainly to excavate. The main contents are as follows: (1) excavating with bucket rod and bucket. When the bucket hydraulic cylinder and connecting rod, bucket rod hydraulic cylinder and bucket rod are all at 90 °angle, the maximum excavation force and excavation efficiency can be obtained. (2) keep the direction of bucket teeth consistent with the direction of excavation as far as possible, and reduce the resistance and wear of bucket teeth.
2. The forward shovel operation
is generally carried out above the ground, and the rotation mode of the bucket is opposite to that of the backshovel. Use a bucket rod hydraulic cylinder to scratch the ground. The excavating force of the forward shovel is less than that of the backshovel.
3. The trench digging operation
can be carried out efficiently by configuring the bucket corresponding to the width of the trench so that the tracks on both sides are parallel to the side line of the trench to be dug. When you dig a wide trench, dig both sides first, and finally dig out the middle part.
4. When carrying out the loading operation
the excavator should be moved to the back of the loading truck first to avoid the bucket touching the cab or other people when turning, and it is easier to load in the back of the truck than next to the truck. When loading, it is more convenient to load from front to back, and the loading capacity is large.
5. Level the ground
(1) first fill and level the ground, move the bucket horizontally.
(2) when the excavator moves, do not level the ground by pressing or shovel.
(3) smooth from the ground in front of the excavator, then gently pull the bucket rod, slowly lift the moving arm, when the bucket rod exceeds the vertical position, first small mouth down the moving arm, and then operate the machine, let the bucket move horizontally.